A tree such as the Norway maple (Acer platanoides), or the sycamore maple, or the sycamore maple, is a type of maple that is commonly found throughout Europe and Western Asia. The southern border of the range of this plant reaches northern Iran, while the northern one ends at the southern regions of Scandinavia, Finland and Karelia. Such a tree prefers to grow singly or in small groups in deciduous and mixed forests.
Norway maple has a height of about 30 meters, sometimes even higher. The surface of the trunk is covered with fissured bark of a gray-brownish, almost black color. The bark on young branches is gray-red and relatively smooth. The shape of the crown is round. The branches are powerful, wide, they are directed downward. Simple palm-like leaf plates are oppositely located, coarse-toothed blades (sometimes from 5 to 7 pieces) have a sharpness at the ends. The front of the foliage is dark green and the back is light green. In autumn, the leaf plates acquire an orange or yellow color. If you break the petioles or veins at the leaves, then a milk-colored juice will appear at the site of damage. Flowering is observed in the first half of May. The scutellous inflorescences consist of 15-30 fragrant flowers, colored greenish-yellow. Such a tree belongs to dioecious plants, so there can be either male or female flowers on it. Pollination is due to insects. The nectary has the form of a flat ring, the bases of the stamens are immersed in it. It is placed between the petals and the ovary. The fruit is a lionfish that splits into 2 single-seeded fruitlets. Fruit ripening occurs in the last days of summer, while they can remain on the branches until the end of the winter period. Norway maple is a good honey plant.
Such a tree is outwardly similar to another species, namely, sugar maple or Canadian maple. These plants can be easily distinguished by the color of the sap that stands out from the petioles, for example, in the sugar maple it is transparent. Also, the Norway maple does not have such a rough and coarse bark as the sugar maple, and in the fall, its leaf plates acquire a less bright color. In Norway maple, the shape of the leaf plates is more flattering. The buds of the Norway maple are light red, while the buds of the sugar maple are deep green.
Norway maple (useful and poisonous plants for rabbits)
It is recommended to plant the Norway maple in open ground at the very beginning of the spring period or in the fall. When choosing a place for planting, you should take into account that the distance from the seedling to any other plant should be at least 2.5–3 meters. If maples are used to create a hedge, then a distance of 2 meters should be maintained between them. For planting, choose a well-lit area or one that is in light partial shade. The soil must be well drained. When digging a hole, it should be borne in mind that its depth should be identical to the height of the root ball. In this case, the width of the fossa must be made 4 times larger than the root coma. In the event that the groundwater at the site is too close to the soil surface, then the depth of the pit should be increased, since at its bottom it will be necessary to make a drainage layer, the thickness of which should be at least 15 centimeters. To create this layer, you can use crushed stone, broken brick or screenings.
The root system of the seedling should never dry out before planting. Therefore, it is recommended to immerse it in a container of water for several hours.
To fill the planting pit, a nutrient mixture consisting of humus (peat compost), sand and turf soil (3: 1: 2) should be used. First, 120 to 150 grams of Nitroammofoska must be poured into the pit, only then the root ball of the seedling is placed in it. When the roots are neatly straightened, the hole needs to be filled with a nutrient mixture. After planting, the root collar of the plant should rise several centimeters above the surface of the site. The planted maple tree must be watered using 30 liters of water. After the liquid is completely absorbed, the root collar of the seedling should fall to the level of the surface of the site. Do not forget, in the first days after planting, mulch the tree trunk circle, using dry soil or peat for this, the layer thickness should be within 3-5 centimeters.
Norway maple Crimson King - stratification and planting of seeds
Newly planted Norway maple needs frequent watering. Even after the plant is strong and growing, it will need systematic watering, especially during the summer months. In spring and autumn, the tree is watered once every 4 weeks, and in the summer this procedure is carried out once every 7 days. When watering, a young plant should take 40 liters of water, but if the tree is adult, then 20 liters will be enough for it. But it should be borne in mind that if the color of the foliage of the tree has become pale green, then this indicates that the soil is very waterlogged. If the plant feels a lack of water, then its leaf plates droop. After watering, it is necessary to systematically loosen the surface of the trunk circle, at the same time pulling out weeds.
In the event that all the necessary fertilizers were introduced into the planting pit, then there is no need to feed the plants until the end of the current season. After spring comes, the maple will need to be fed, for this, the surface of the tree trunk needs to be covered with a three-centimeter layer of rotted manure. You can also use special slow-release nutrient tablets for feeding. They should be spread out in the root zone. From the beginning of the growing season until the end of spring, such feeding should be done once every 2 weeks, in the summer it is carried out once every 4 weeks; in the fall, there is no need to feed maple.
The dormant period for the tree begins with the first frost and lasts until March. If the maple is still young, then for the winter it will need a good shelter. His bole needs to be wrapped in burlap, which is fixed with a rope. This will protect the plant from both severe frosts and rodents. The root neck of the plant must be covered with spruce branches. As the plant grows older, frost resistance increases, and soon it will not be necessary to cover it for the winter.
Maple only needs sanitary pruning, during which all frozen, injured, dried out branches and stems should be cut off. You also need to cut out all the root growth. If desired, you can shorten those stems that stick out in different directions, and also remove the shoots growing inside the crown. Formative pruning is not necessary, since the natural spherical shape of the maple is very attractive even without it.
If the branches of the tree began to die off, and small spots of a burgundy color appeared on the surface of the bark, then this indicates its infection with coral spot. Those branches that are affected must be cut and destroyed, and the cuts must be smeared with garden varnish. Gardening tools should be disinfected both before and after pruning.
Of the pests, whiteflies, mealybugs and leaf weevils can settle on maple. The branches affected by whitefly larvae must be cut off and destroyed, and then the plant is treated with Ammophos. For preventive purposes, from mealybugs, maple is processed on the leaf with Nitrafen until the buds swell. To get rid of weevils, you need to process the tree on a leaf with a solution of Chlorophos, which is prepared strictly according to the instructions.
Norway maple is easy enough to propagate by seed. They are sown in the autumn in the seedling beds; during the winter they will undergo natural stratification. In the spring time, seedlings will appear, they will only have to be planted. If you wish, you can sow seeds in March, but before that they will need to be stratified. To do this, the seeds should be poured into a container filled with moistened sand, which is removed for 5-7 days in the refrigerator on a shelf for vegetables.
Select the branch from which you will air lay. Take a sterilized knife and make several incisions with it on the surface of the bark, which should be obliquely. Then it is necessary to treat the incisions with a means that stimulates the formation of roots (Kornevin or Heteroauxin). In order to prevent the edges of the cuts from joining, grains of foam must be placed in them. Then the incisions are covered with moistened moss, this part of the branch must be wrapped in a plastic bag, which is tightly fixed just above and below the wounds. Then you need to close the bag with aluminum foil or a canvas cloth so that the sun's rays do not fall on it.
Over time, young roots will appear at the cuts, they will grow into moist moss. With the onset of next spring, when the growing season begins, it will be necessary to separate the layers from the tree, while carefully removing the fabric or foil and removing the bag. It is not necessary to remove the moss; the cuttings are planted in open soil with it.
On the overgrown root shoot, it will be necessary to make several cuts with a sharp knife, while they should be as close to the surface of the site as possible. Then, the wounds are treated with a means that stimulates the growth of roots, and then the layering must be highlighted (the wounds must be covered with soil). Provide systematic watering and hilling during the growing season. After the next spring comes, the cuttings will be ready to be cut off and transplanted to a permanent location, as they will develop their own root system.
How to properly propagate Norway maples. How to plant maple trees correctly.
The Norway maple has a large number of varieties and several decorative forms. Gardeners prefer to grow the spherical shape of the maple - this tree is characterized by slow growth, it is grown by grafting into the root collar or stem, due to which the plant acquires a bushy appearance. The punch form is used in a single planting or to create an alley. To decorate the lawn, as a rule, maple is grafted into the root collar. There is a split form - this is a very beautiful tree, in which dark green leaf plates are divided to the base. There is another form - Drummond Norway maple, during blooming its leaf plates are pink, and then they become white-bordered, this plant is distinguished by its extraordinary beauty. The Golden Globe tree has a spherical crown and golden leaves.
The most popular varieties:
The tree does not exceed 7 meters in height, while the diameter of its crown can be 3-5 meters. Finger-split leaf plates consist of five parts. When the foliage is just blooming, it has a pink color, then its color changes to dark green. In autumn, the leaves turn orange-yellow.
Such a tree can reach a height of 20 meters. Its crown shape is typical for this species. Throughout the season, its leaf plates are painted in a bright purple, almost black. When the leaf plates begin to bloom, they have a deep red color with pink cataphylls, after some time they darken and become burgundy. In autumn, a purple tint appears on the front surface of the leaf plate.
Such a plant is distinguished by its slenderness. In height, it can reach about 20 meters, while the diameter of its crown is approximately 8 meters. The branches are directed upwards. The composition of the palmate-divided leaf plates includes five parts, they are painted in a deep red color.
The height of such a tree does not exceed 20 meters, and the diameter of its crown can reach 15 meters. Five to seven lobed leaf blades have a slightly wavy edge. The leaves are about 15 centimeters long and 20 centimeters wide. When the leaves bloom, their front surface is red-purple, glossy, while the back is painted in a dark green color. Gradually, the color of the front surface of the leaves becomes green, and then completely brown. In autumn, the leaf plates change their color to orange-yellow.
Such a plant is characterized by rapid growth, its height can reach 15 meters, and the crown diameter does not exceed 10 meters. The shape of the leaf plates is palmate-lobed, when they only bloom, they have a bronze color, which gradually turns green. In autumn, the leaves turn yellow.
The height of the tree is about 15 meters. The width of the leaf plates is about 15 centimeters. During blooming, they are pale red, but then become glossy and gradually change their color to almost black with a purple-purple tint.
The height of such a plant can vary from 8 to 12 meters. During blooming, the color of the leaf plates is red-bloody, then it changes to glossy red-black. In autumn, the leaves turn red again.
When blooming, the foliage is colored red, gradually changing to dark green. In autumn, it acquires a rich yellow color. Plant height varies from 12 to 15 meters, the crown has an ovoid shape.
The height of the tree does not exceed 12–15 meters, while the diameter of its crown, which has a wide ovate shape, is 6–8 meters. After some time, the crown acquires an almost spherical shape. The leaf plates have a palmate-lobed shape, they consist of 5 parts. In April, they are colored pale green, which gradually changes to dark green. In autumn, the leaves turn rich yellow.
Large trees with foliage that have a variegated or rich color are quite popular among gardeners in countries such as Germany, England and Holland. And since the maple tree has a large number of varieties, gardeners have plenty to choose from. For example, if you decorate the slope of a mountain or ravine with such trees with foliage of yellow, purple or variegated color, then it will look like a decoration for a fairy tale.
If there is a desire to decorate a garden or a summer cottage, then it is better to choose the Crimson King variety. Even one such tree will make your site unusually colorful, and if you compose a composition with it with other shrubs and trees, you can make your garden or cottage uniquely beautiful. Of course, in order to compose a successful composition, certain knowledge will be required, since it will be necessary to take into account the color compatibility of plants and their future size. However, the end result is undoubtedly worth the effort.
Two varieties under one crown. Norway maple.
Lush Norway maple trees can be found in almost any park. They are easy to recognize by their powerful trunk, openwork leaves of an unusual shape, and a spreading crown. With the onset of autumn, when the leaves are painted in different colors, the maple is transformed.It is not difficult to take care of maple trees, they are completely unpretentious to the conditions of detention.
Deciduous tree with a wide, round, dense crown. Reaches a height of up to 30 m. Under favorable conditions, it can live for more than 200 years. The bark of young trees is smooth and has a reddish-gray tint. In older plants, the bark is gray, dotted with small cracks.
The leaves of the Norway maple are large, up to 18 cm in diameter, have clear, pronounced veins, have 5 lobes, end with pointed lobes. 3 front lobes are the same, 2 lower ones are slightly smaller. There are rounded recesses between the blades. Above the leaves are dark green, below - light green, keep on long petioles. In autumn, they acquire red, brown, brown, burgundy shades.
The flowers are greenish-yellow, small, regular in shape, collected in corymbose inflorescences. Flowering begins in early May, before or during the opening of the leaves, lasts about 10 days. Norway maple is a dioecious plant, therefore female and male flowers bloom on different trees.
The fruit is a double flat lionfish with two small wings. It breaks down into two miniature fruits, each containing one seed. The seeds are glabrous, with a large green embryo. Ripen in August. They can stay on the tree for the entire winter. The tree bears fruit abundantly and annually. In Russia, fruiting begins in September.
The intensive growth of the plant is observed for the first 3 years. Begins to bear fruit at the age of 17. Propagated by seeds, root shoots, grafting. Before planting, the seeds are stratified at a temperature of 0 - 3 ° C.
Stratification takes about 3 months. At a higher temperature of 5-7 ° C, its duration increases. The seeds are stored in a tightly closed plastic container or sealed bags in a cool place. Germination is maintained for 2 years. Seeds are sown after stratification or immediately after collection to a depth of 4-5 cm. Winter-hardy Norway maple. Demanding on the soil. Prefers moist, fertile substrates. Does not tolerate stagnant moisture and excessive soil acidity. It dies off quickly on dense, rocky soils, does not take root on salt marshes and sands. Shade tolerant. Wind resistant. Transplant easily.
Adapted to urban conditions and air pollution. In Russia, it is one of the main species for creating parks and landscaping streets. It is used in single, group and alley plantings. In summer, the tree pleases with bright, juicy greenery, in autumn - with rich colors of leaves. A photo of the Norway maple proves that this tree is valued in landscape design and decoration of garden plots for its attractiveness and original foliage.
Norway maple grows in Europe and Southwest Asia. In Russia, it is distributed in the North Caucasus, on the southern border of the taiga in the north. It settles in deciduous and mixed forests with moderately moist and nutritious soils. Grows singly or in small groups.
Very often, in the sultry heat, there is a keen desire to hide in the shade of trees. And now, hiding from the summer heat, the question arises: what kind of tree is this, which so hospitably took into its arms? And often this tree is maple. What is this representative of the flora, what features does it have and where does it live?
Maple belongs to the maple family, and it acquired this name due to its leaves with pointed blades. Translated from Latin, "acer" means "sharp". Maple is a deciduous tree found throughout Europe. Norway maple (Acer platanoides) prevails in Russian forests. This species can also be grown in the country, since it is absolutely unpretentious.
Most maples prefer light "residences", are very demanding on soil and moisture, grow rather quickly in the shade and are not susceptible to wind.
Since ancient times, maple has been observing the enthusiastic glances of passers-by, and this is not surprising, because it has an original shape, bright and juicy color of leaves, especially in autumn, unusual fruits and inflorescences. That is why more and more people living in private houses are bringing such a decorative element as maple trees into the garden design. Almost all types of maple are excellent honey plants and have been used for the purpose of landscaping since the beginning of the development of horticulture.
So, if you decide to plant a maple on your lawn, then you simply must know all the intricacies of planting and care, so as not to ruin this beautiful plant. And having done everything exactly according to the recommendations of experienced gardeners, you can be sure that maple will delight the eye for more than a decade.
First you need to decide on the soil. In most cases, regular garden soil, well cultivated and containing humus, will do. The proportions of potting mixes depend solely on the selected species of the maple family. Planting is carried out in spring or autumn: the distance between trees is from 2 to 4 meters, and the depth of the planting pit ranges up to 50 cm. Before planting a tree, mineral fertilizers should be added to the prepared hole in the specified proportions. It is also important to remember the fact that it is necessary to place maple in open places or in partial shade, since trees with a decorative leaf color fade when planted in the shade and lose their color saturation.
Note that maple easily tolerates drought, but this is more reflected in the colorfulness of its leaves, therefore, if the tree is planted for aesthetics, it needs to be watered regularly: about 15 - 20 liters per plant for a dry period. And if the maple is young, a double portion of water will not hurt. Watering should be done once a month in the autumn-spring period, and once a week in the summer. It is recommended to constantly monitor the soil, periodically perform shallow loosening after the next watering and weeding, in order to avoid compaction of the planting place.
A tree, like an animal, requires constant care. Although maple is unpretentious, it is still worth paying more attention to it. Maple is good at seasonal pruning, after which it begins to grow rapidly and branch out densely. It is necessary to remove dry and diseased branches.
The following diseases and pests are characteristic of the maple family: coral spot, maple whitefly, maple mealybug and leaf weevil. With a spotted disease, some branches die off, and small burgundy spots appear on the bark. It is urgent to remove the infected branches, and cover the sections abundantly with garden varnish, while disinfecting all garden tools. With the maple whitefly, the larvae are sprayed with ammophos and the dry branches and leaves are burned. Spraying with 3% nitrafen before bud break is considered a good prophylaxis against maple mealybug. When a maple leaf weevil is identified, trees are treated with chlorophos.
The dormant period for maple lasts from the first cold snaps to the arrival of spring. In winter, you should protect immature plants from frost by wrapping them with spruce branches near the root collar. With age, their frost resistance will increase significantly and there will be no need for such measures. With early frosts, annual shoots must be cut off. Crohn is capable of self-healing due to new shoots that have time to get stronger before the onset of frost.
Maples are propagated in different ways: by grafting, cuttings or seeds. Planting maple from seeds is very effective.
Maple is considered a versatile tree with little hassle. It grows quietly alone, as a hedge and as part of a decorative composition in combination with conifers. The tree carries a positive charge and calm energy, which is especially loved by both true gardeners and ordinary people.
An autumn well-groomed maple tree in the garden is a fascinating picture, but it will cease to please the eye if the tree gets sick. Powdery mildew is the most common maple disease that can cause it to dry out. It appears as a white bloom on the leaves. To cure a tree, you need to remove the infected shoots, treat the wounds with garden varnish and disinfect them. Another method of struggle is prophylactic spraying of maple with antifungal agents (fungicides) or copper sulfate.
The next attack is black spot. It affects the leaves, protruding on them with dark spots. The tree loses its decorative qualities. They fight it in the same ways as with powdery mildew.
The plant also has enough pests. Weevils, whiteflies, mealybugs and other insects can seriously harm the tree. The main way in the fight against this scourge is spraying with insectoacaricides (familiarity with the instructions and compliance with safety rules are mandatory). If the infection occurred in the fall, then the leaves are destroyed.
Red maple will decorate any garden or home. You just need to pay attention to the plant, take care of it. In response, it will delight the whole family for many years.
For an overview of the Japanese decorative red maple, see the following video.